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How and when do I have to renew a patent for the second term?

I think you’re referring to the Maintenance Fee for your patent. Here are some helpful excerpts from the USPTO website:

“A maintenance fee is a fee that is required for maintaining in force all utility and reissue utility patents based on applications filed on or after December 12, 1980. Generally, utility patents expire after 20 years from the application filing date subject to the payment of appropriate maintenance fees. If a maintenance fee is not paid the patent protection lapses and the rights provided by a patent are no longer enforceable. Maintenance fees are not required for a design or plant patent, or for statutory invention registrations (SIR).

Maintenance fees are due three times during the life of a patent, and may be paid without surcharge at 3 to 3.5 years, 7 to 7.5 years, and 11 to 11.5 years after the date of issue. The fee cannot be paid early. Maintenance fees may also be paid with a surcharge during the “grace periods” at 3.5 to 4 years, 7.5 to 8 years, and 11.5 to 12 years after the date of issue.

A maintenance fee and any necessary surcharge submitted for a patent must be submitted in the amount due on the date the maintenance fee and any necessary surcharge are paid. Payment of less than the required amount will not constitute payment of a maintenance fee or surcharge on a patent. If the last day for paying a maintenance fee or any applicable surcharge falls on a Saturday, Sunday, or federal holiday, the fee may be paid on the succeeding day which is not a Saturday, Sunday, or federal holiday.”

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